Jordan is blessed with an abundance of solar & wind energy resources, however, renewable energy contributes to only 3-4 per cent of the national electricity grid and the figure is scheduled to reach 10 per cent by 2020. According to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, several projects are implemented or under implementation, and by 2020, Jordan will have solar and wind power projects with a total capacity of 1,600 megawatts.
In 2010 Jordan enacted a Renewable Energy Law that permits and encourages the exploitation of renewable energy sources at any geographical location in the country. The Law also creates a Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Fund and permits home-produced energy to be sold to grid thereby accelerating the adoption of clean energy technologies at both residential and commercial levels.
Solar Energy in Jordan:
Jordan is located within world solar belt (300-320 days of full sunshine) & has one of the highest figures of the annual daily average solar irradiance on a horizontal surface which ranges between 5-7 Kilowatts hour (kWh)/m2, this figure implies a potential of at least 1000GWh per year annually, which is almost twice the ratio in Germany, which by mid-2015 generated 34 per cent of its electricity via renewable energy projects.
Jordan can be divided into five solar radiation regions:
- The first region is the southern region, which is located 29.0-30.5 N, 35.0-38 E. This region is represented by M’aan and Aqaba areas and has the highest solar insulation in the country. In this regard, the annual daily average values of global irradiance are estimated between (6-7) KWh/m2 and (1.2 – 1.35) KWh/m2 for diffuse irradiance.
- The second region is the eastern region, which is located 30.5-32.5 N, 36.0-39 E. This region represents the semi desert and (Badia) remote areas in the country. Annual daily average values are about 5.5 and 1.5 KWh/m2 for global and diffuse irradiance respectively. The annual daily average of sunny hours is about 9 hours.
- The third region is the middle region which is located at 30.5-32.0 N, 35.5-36.5 E. In comparison with other regions, this area has the highest annual average value of diffuse irradiance ranging between 1.6 and 1.9 KWh/m2 . The global irradiance is about 5.5 KWh/m2 in this region.
- The fourth region is the northern region (32.0-33.0 N, 35.5-36.5 E). In this region the annual daily average values of global irradiance are about 5.0 KWh/m2 and about 1.5 KWh/m2 for diffuse solar irradiance.
- The fifth region is the western region (30.5-33.0 N, 35.0-35.5 E). This region represents the Jordan Rift Valley areas, where the elevation of areas is below the sea level (from –170m at Baqora to –250m at Ghor Safi). This region is very hot in summer and warm in winter.
Jordan has high values of solar energy radiation which makes the solar energy exploitation not only possible but also gives better results than that in other countries. However, despite Jordan’s excellent solar resources, installed solar capacity is very limited and JOCCEPS will work along partners to increase the use of solar energy.
Wind Energy in Jordan:
Wind speed reaching between 7.5 to 11.5 m/s in some places. • Wind projects are now feasible and competitive without further concessional support
The wind speed in some areas in Jordan can reach up to 10 metres per second.
The wind atlas of Jordan indicates that large areas have an average annual wind speeds in excess of 6-6.5 m/s; some more limited areas have an average wind speed above 7 m/s.
Jordan possesses high potential of wind energy resources where the annual average wind speed exceeds 7 m/s (at 10 m height) in some areas of the country
Jordan can be divided into two windy regions:
- The First region is the northern region with an estimated 25 MW potential for wind power generation.
- The Second region is the southern region with the same figure for the northern parts. In total the
- without major changes in the grid and power system, and this potential could amount due to variations of wind speeds to 65–145 GWh per year , which corresponds to 1.5–2.5 % of the total electric energy generated in the country in the year 1997 .